ISC, DOAJ, CAS, Google Scholar......

Document Type : Review


Department of Chemistry, Dr. Hari Singh Gour Central University, Sagar-470003, IN


Nanotechnology has an impact on many scientific and technical fields, including environmental safety. Environmental applications of nanotechnology include water and wastewater treatment, in which different nanomaterials utilize adsorption and separation processes, as well as a variety of other approaches, to remove pollutants, pathogens, and other hazardous elements. Diverse forms, various composites, and active component functionalization are only a few of the ways nanomaterials are formed. To ensure a plentiful supply of water, nanostructures have presented a practical alternative. Due to its very specific area of surface, microinterface properties, and remediation potential, nanomaterials have emerged as a hot topic in environmental research. The review paper covers diverse treatment methods for wastewater, including adsorption, catalysis, spacing, and disinfection, and a range of nanomaterials such as NPs for graphene, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), (nZVI), NPs for nanoscale Fe3O4, ZnO NPs, nanoparticles in silver (Ag-NPs), Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and several additional NPs as well as various nanocomposite materials, such as inorganic and organic supports, magnetic nanocomposite, and nanocomposite membranes, etc. Most crucially, the possible application of nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment is also considered in the future.


Main Subjects

  1.  Savage, N. & Diallo, M. S. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges. Journal of Nanoparticle Research7, 331–342 (2005).
  1. Narayan, R. Use of nanomaterials in water purification. Materials Today13, 44–46 (2010).
  2. Khan, S. T. & Malik, A. Engineered nanomaterials for water decontamination and purification: From lab to products. Journal of Hazardous Materials363, 295–308 (2019).
  3. Wang, D. A critical review of cellulose-based nanomaterials for water purification in industrial processes. Cellulose26, 687–701 (2018).
  4. Santhosh, C. et al.Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for Water Purification. Nanoscale Materials in Water Purification (2018). Available at:
  5. Saleh, T. A. Advanced Nanomaterials for Water Engineering, Treatment, and Hydraulics. IGI Global(1AD). Available at:
  6. Ihsanullah, I. MXenes (two-dimensional metal carbides) as emerging nanomaterials for water purification: Progress, challenges, and prospects. Chemical Engineering Journal388, 124340 (2020).
  7. Functional nanomaterials for water purification - La ... Available at:
  8. Das, R. et al.Recent advances in nanomaterials for water protection and monitoring. Chemical Society Reviews (2017). Available at:
  9. Singh, N. B., Nagpal, G. & Agrawal, S. Water purification by using Adsorbents: A Review. Environmental Technology & Innovation(2018). Available at:
  10. Kidd, J., Westerhoff, P. & Maynard, A. D. Public perceptions for the use of nanomaterials for in-home drinking water purification devices. NanoImpact18, 100220 (2020).
  11. Zeng, M. et al.Engineered two-dimensional nanomaterials: an emerging paradigm for water purification and monitoring. Materials Horizons (2020). Available at:!
  12. Zahid, M. et al.Hybrid nanomaterials for water purification. Multifunctional Hybrid Nanomaterials for Sustainable Agri-Food and Ecosystems (2020). Available at:
  13. An Overview of Nanomaterials for Water Technology ... Available at:
  14. Ahuja, S. Select applications of nanomaterials for water purification. Handbook of Water Purity and Quality (Second Edition)(2021).
  15. Romanovski, V. Agricultural waste based-nanomaterials: Green technology for water purification. Aquananotechnology(2021). Available at:
  16. Mohammed, M.B. (2011) Low Cost Nanomaterials for Water Desalination and Purification. Final Technical Report, United Nations-UNESCO. - References - Scientific Research PublishingAvailable at:
  17. Li Q; Mahendra S; Lyon DY; Brunet L; Liga MV; Li D; Alvarez PJ; Antimicrobial nanomaterials for water disinfection and microbial control: potential applications and implications. Water researchAvailable at:
  18. Nasrollahzadeh, M., Sajjadi, M., Iravani, S. & Varma, R. S. Green-synthesized nanocatalysts and nanomaterials for water treatment: Current challenges and future perspectives. Journal of Hazardous Materials(2020). Available at:
  19. Xue, X.-yan, Cheng, R., Shi, L., Ma, Z. & Zheng, X. Nanomaterials for water pollution monitoring and remediation: Semantic Scholar. undefined(1970). Available at:
  20. Lee, C. H., Tiwari, B., Zhang, D. & Yap, Y. K. Water purification: oil-water separation by nanotechnology and environmental concerns. Environmental Science: Nano(2017).
  21. Santhosh, C. et al.Role of nanomaterials in water treatment applications: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal (2016). Available at:
  22. Singh, K. K., Singh, A. & Rai, S. A study on nanomaterials for water purification. Materials Today: Proceedings(2021). doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2021.07.116.
  23. Zhu, Y. et al.Behavior, remediation effect and toxicity of nanomaterials in water environments. Environmental research (2019).
  24. Teow, Y. H. & Mohammad, A. W. New generation nanomaterials for water desalination: A review. Desalination(2017).
  25. Gopakumar, D. A. et al.Nanomaterials-State of Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities. Nanoscale Materials in Water Purification (2018).
  26. The potential of nanofibers and nanobiocides in water ... Available at:
  27. Survey of industrial perceptions for the use of ... Available at:
  28. AP, V. H. B. L. L. P. M. Nanocellulose-Based Materials for Water Purification. Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)Available at:
  29. Dankovich, T. A. & Gray, D. G. Bactericidal Paper Impregnated with Silver Nanoparticles for Point-of-Use Water Treatment. Environmental Science & Technology45, 1992–1998 (2011).
  30. MR; C. A. W. L. C. F. W. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies. Environmental science & technologyAvailable at:
  31. Li, C. et al.Carbon-based membrane materials and applications in water and wastewater treatment: a review - Environmental Chemistry Letters. SpringerLink (2020).
  32. New Carbon Nanomaterials for Water Purification from Heavy ... Available at:
  33. Dong Y; Li G; Zhou N; Wang R; Chi Y; Chen G; Graphene quantum dot as green and facile sensor for free chlorine in drinking water. Analytical chemistryAvailable at:
  34. Recent Advances in Nanoporous Membranes for Water Purification. Available at:
  35. Lu, F. & Astruc, D. Nanocatalysts and other nanomaterials for water remediation from organic pollutants. Coordination Chemistry Reviews(2020).
  36. M; A. R. D. S. Water purification using magnetic assistance: a review. Journal of hazardous materialsAvailable at:
  37. Dongre, S. Rationally fabricated nanomaterials for desalination and water purification. Novel Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Applications, 271 (2018).
  38. Nasrollahzadeh, M., Sajjadi, M., Iravani, S., & Varma, R. S. Carbon-based sustainable nanomaterials for water treatment: State-of-art and future Chemosphere, 128005 (2020).
  39. Lu, X., Wang, X., Jin, J., Zhang, Q., & Chen, J. Electrochemical biosensing platform based on amino acid ionic liquid functionalized graphene for ultrasensitive biosensing Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 62, 134-139 (2014).
  40. Singh, , Shandilya, P., Raizada, P., Sudhaik, A., Rahmani-Sani, A., & Hosseini-Bandegharaei, A. Review on various strategies for enhancing photocatalytic activity of graphene-based nanocomposites for water purification. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 13(1), 3498-3520 (2020).
  41. Sannino, D., Rizzo, L., & Vaiano, V. Progress in Nanomaterials Applications for Water In Nanotechnologies for Environmental Remediation (pp. 1-24). Springer, Cham. (2017).
  42. Şimşek, B., Sevgili, İ., Ceran, Ö. B., Korucu, H., & Şara, O. NNanomaterials based drinking water purification: a comparative study with a conventional water purification process. Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 63(1), 96-112. (2019)..
  43. Mishra, K., Hussain, C. M., & Mishra, S. B. (Eds.). Nanomaterials for Water Remediation. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG (2020)..
  44. Guo, Q., Zhou, X., Li, X., Chen, S., Seema, A., Greiner, A., & Hou, H. Supercapacitors based on hybrid carbon nanofibers containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 19(18), 2810-2816 (2009).
  45. Sharma, V. K., McDonald, T. J., Kim, H., & Garg, V. K. Magnetic graphene–carbon nanotube iron nanocomposites as adsorbents and antibacterial agents for water Advances in colloid and interface science, 225, 229-240 (2015).
  46. Daer, S., Kharraz, J., Giwa, A., & Hasan, S. W. Recent applications of nanomaterials in water desalination: a critical review and future Desalination, 367, 37-48 (2015)..
  47. Adeleye, S., Conway, J. R., Garner, K., Huang, Y., Su, Y., & Keller, A. A. Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: Costs, benefits, and applicability. Chemical Engineering Journal, 286, 640-662 (2016).
  48. Saleem, H., & Zaidi, S. J. Developments in the Application of Nanomaterials for Water Treatment and Their Impact on the Environment. Nanomaterials, 10(9), 1764 (2020).
  49. Lu, , Wang, J., Stoller, M., Wang, T., Bao, Y., & Hao, H. An overview of nanomaterials for water and wastewater treatment. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, (2016).
  50. Tiwari, D. K., Behari, J., & Sen, P. Application of nanoparticles in wastewater treatment 1, (2008).
  51. Ali, , Peng, C., Naz, I., & Amjed, M. A. Water Purification Using Magnetic Nanomaterials: An Overview. Magnetic Nanostructures, 161-179 (2019).
  52. Garg, S., Bhatia, R., & Attri, P. Black but gold: Carbon nanomaterials for wastewater Nanomaterials for Water Remediation; De Gruyter: Berlin, Germany, 42-92 (2020).
  53. Ghadimi, , Zangenehtabar, S., & Homaeigohar, S. An overview of the water remediation potential of nanomaterials and their ecotoxicological impacts. Water, 12(4), 1150 (2020).
  54. Moon, G. H., Kim, D. H., Kim, H. I., Bokare, A. D., & Choi, W. Platinum-like behavior of reduced graphene oxide as a cocatalyst on TiO2 for the efficient photocatalytic oxidation of Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 1(2), 185-190 (2014).
  55. Hossain, F., Perales-Perez, O. J., Hwang, S., & Román, F. Antimicrobial nanomaterials as water disinfectant: applications, limitations, and future Science of the total environment, 466, 1047-1059 (2014).
  56. Sun, X. F., Qin, J., Xia, P. F., Guo, B. B., Yang, C. M., Song, C., & Wang, S. G. Graphene oxide–silver nanoparticle membrane for biofouling control and water Chemical Engineering Journal, 281, 53-59 (2015).
  57. Zhang, Y., Wu, B., Xu, H., Liu, H., Wang, M., He, Y., & Pan, B. Nanomaterials-enabled water and wastewater treatment. NanoImpact, 3, 22-39 (2016)..
  58. Gogotsi, Y., & Presser, V. (Eds.). Carbon nanomaterials. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC/Taylor & Francis (2006).
  59. Wang, Y., Guo, L., Qi, P., Liu, X., & Wei, G. Synthesis of three-dimensional graphene-based hybrid materials for water purification: A Nanomaterials, 9(8), 1123 (2019).
  60. Gao, , Sun, Y., Zhou, J., Xu, R., & Duan, H. Mussel-inspired synthesis of polydopamine-functionalized graphene hydrogel as reusable adsorbents for water purification. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 5(2), 425-432 (2013)..
  61. Sadegh, , Ali, G. A., Gupta, V. K., Makhlouf, A. S. H., Shahryari-ghoshekandi, R., Nadagouda, M. N., ... & Megiel, E. The role of nanomaterials as effective adsorbents and their applications in wastewater treatment. Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 7(1), 1-14 (2017).
  62. Singh, N. B., Susan, M., Hasan, A. B., & Guin, M. Applications of green synthesized nanomaterials in water remediation. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (2021).
  63. Thines, R. K., Mubarak, N. M., Nizamuddin, S., Sahu, J. N., Abdullah, E. C., & Ganesan, P. Application potential of carbon nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment: a Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 72, 116-133 (2017).
  64. Nabeela Nasreen, S. A. A., Sundarrajan, S., Syed Nizar, S. A., & Ramakrishna, S. Nanomaterials: Solutions to water-concomitant Membranes, 9(3), 40 (2019).
  65. Yang, K., & Xing, B. Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from carbon nanomaterials in water. Environmental Pollution, 145(2), 529-537 (2007).
  66. Zhu, J., Hou, J., Zhang, Y., Tian, M., He, T., Liu, J., & Chen, V. Polymeric antimicrobial membranes enabled by nanomaterials for water treatment. Journal of membrane science, 550, 173- 197 (2018).
  67. Neyaz, N., Siddiqui, W. A., & Nair, K. K. Application of surface-functionalized iron oxide nanomaterials as nanosorbents in the extraction of toxic heavy metals from groundwater: a International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4(4), 472 (2014).
  68. Bolisetty, , Peydayesh, M., & Mezzenga, R. Sustainable technologies for water purification from heavy metals: review and analysis. Chemical Society Reviews, 48(2), 463-487 (2019).
  69. Sayan, B., Indranil, S., Aniruddha, M., Dhrubajyoti, C., Uday, C. G., & Debashis, C. Role of nanotechnology in water treatment and purification: potential applications and Int J Chem Sci Technol, 3(3), 59 (2013).