ISC, DOAJ, CAS, Google Scholar......

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Chemistry Omar Al-Mukhtar University

2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya

3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Al-Marj, Libya

4 Chemistry Department university of Benghazi


DNA sequences rich in Guanine can come together to form G-quadruplexes, which are tetra-stranded structures. According to some theories, these secondary DNA structures may have a role in the control of several important biological processes. The telomere and the promoter regions of several oncogenes contain guanine-rich sequences that have the potential to create G-quadruplexes in the human genome. The aim of the work was to Prepare guanine complexes with metal ions (Cd(II), Fe(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II)). The complexes were characterised by physical chemical and spectroscopic techniques such as electrical conductivity, metal content, infrared, UV-visible and molar conductivity techniques. The molar ratio of Guanine to metal ion reaction is 1:2, which is determined by the molar ratio method. Dissociation constants for guanine ligands were determined spectrophotometrically. The effect of solvents on the electronic spectra of guanine ligands was studied using solvents of different polarities. The biological activity of guanine ligands and their metal complexes was tested in vitro against selected fungal and bacterial species. The results showed satisfactory spectra for the tested organisms.


Main Subjects

  1. X, K. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Liu. and J. Kang, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 52 (2002) 189.
  2. Kruszewski ,M. Green, J. Lowe and I. Mut. Res. 308(1994) 233.
  3. Gellman, S. H., R. Petter, and R. Breslow, 1. Am. Chem. Soc. 108 ,2388; J. Chin and X. Zhou , Am. Chem. Soc. 110 (1988), 223; J. R. Morrow and W. C. Trogler, Inorg. Chem. 27 (1988), 3387.
  4. Dahm , R. "Discovering DNA: Friedrich Miescher and the early years of nucleic acid research (2008).
  5. Theophanides, T. J. in: E.D. Schmid, F.W. Schneider. and F, Siebert (Eds.), Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules New Advances, Willey, Chichester, 1987, pp. 433–438..
  6. Fox, D.L. ( Biochromy, natural coloration of living things. University of California (1979).
  7. Callahan, S. K.E.; Cleaves, H.J.; Ruzica, J.; Stern. and J.C.; Glavin, D.P; House, C.H. and Dworkin, J.P. (2011).
  8. Moore, J., Kirkwood, Z., Millar, B. and Downey, D. Antimicrobial effect of dimethyl sulfoxide and N, N Dimethylformamide on Mycobacterium abscessus: Implications for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. International Journal of Mycobacteriology, (2018), 7(2), p.134.
  9. Balouiri, M., Sadiki, M. and Ibnsouda, S. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, (2016), 6(2), pp.71-79.
  10. Vodnar, D., Călinoiu, L., Dulf, F., Ştefănescu, B., Crişan, G. and Socaciu, C. Identification of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant, antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities of thermally processed agro-industrial waste. (2017), Food Chemistry, 231, pp.131-140.
  11. Novikov, A.P.; Volkov, M.A.; Safonov, A.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Abkhalimov, E.V. Synthesis and Characterization of New Guanine Complexes of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) by X-ray Diffraction and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis. Crystals 2021, 11, 1417.
  12. Mahesh, A. and Nsoki P. a Department of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, LeMoyne-Owen College, Memphis, TN 38126 USA b (2013).
  13. Platinum and Other Metal Coordination Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy; Howell, S. B. Ed.; Plenum Press: New-York, (1996).
  14. Rosenberg, B.; Van Camp, L.; Krigas, T. Nature (1965), 205, 698.
  15. Chiavarino, B.; Crestoni, M. E.; Fornarini, S.; Lemaire, J.; Maitre, P.and MacAleese, L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2006), 128, 12553.
  16. Coletti, C.; Re, N.; Scuderi, D.; Maitre, P.; Chiavarino, B.; Fornarini, S.; Lanucara, F.; Sinha, R. K. and Crestoni, M. E. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2010), 12, 13455 .
  17. Polfer, N. C.; Oomens, J. and Dunbar, R. C. Phys, (2008).
  18. Polfer, N. C.; Oomens, J. Mass Spectrom. Rev. (2009).
  19. Lu, K. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Kang, and J. Biochem.Biophys. Methods 52, (2002) ,189.
  20. Anastassopoulou, J. K. Barbarossou, V. Korbaki, T. Theophanides,P. Legrand, J-P. Huvenne, B. Sombert, in: P.Carmona, R. Navarro, A.Hernanz (Eds.), Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules, vol. 7, Kluwer Academic Publishers,Dordrecht, The Netheralnds, (1997) .
  21. Okamoto, K. V. Behnam, M.T. Viet, M. Polissiou, J.-Y.Gautier, S. and Hanessian, T. Theophanides, Inorg. Chim. Act Lett. 123 (1986).
  22. Baner, G.D.Chrestien and J.EO'reilly, "Instrumental Analysis", Allyn and Bacon Inc,178-171(1978).
  23. C, Bickelhaupt. F, Saha. S, and Wang .F. Studuing the physical properties ,phys. Chem (2006).
  24. Coucouvanism, D. (1989). Inorg. Chem.,11,233.
  25. Gold, H.S. C.E.Rechsteiner and R.P.Buck, ( 1976) .Anal. Chem. ,48,154.
  26. Bayliss  ,N.S.and L.Hume, Aust. (1953) . j. Chem. ,6,257.
  27. Pimentol, E.C. (1977). J. Am. Chem. Soc.,79,3323.
  28. Hawkins, C.J. and D.D.Perrin, . ( 1993) .Inorg, Chem. ,2,8
  29. B, C., Chen, L., Wang, T., Lei, C, Tian, F, Cui, D. and Zhou Y. One Step Quick Detection of Cancer Cell Surface Marker by Integrated NiFe-based Magnetic Biosensing Cell Cultural Chip. Nano-Micro Letters 5 (3):213-222,(2013) .
  30. S, H. and D.L. Carroll, “Synthesis and Characterisation of Truncated Triangular Silver Nanoplates,” Nano Letters, vol. 2, pp. 1003-1007, (2002)
  31. Bosshard, P., R. Bachofen and H. Brandl, “Metal Leaching of Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration by Aspergillus Niger,” Sci. Technol., vol. 30, pp. 3066-3070, (1996).
  32. Al-Garni S.,Ghanem,K. M and Bahobail, A. Biosorption characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus in removal of cadmium from an aqueous solution. African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 4163-4172 (2009)
  33. Chakraborty, S., Mukherjee A, Khuda-B, and Das, T.K. (2014). 106:46.53.
  34. Sag, Y. and Kutsal T. Recent trends in the biosorption of heavy metals: A review. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 6 (6): 376-385 (2001).
  35. Lanfranco, L, Balsamo, R, Martino E, Bonfante, P. and Perotto, S. Zinc ions differentially affect chitin synthase gene expression in an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus. Plant Biosystems 138:271–277 (2004)