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Document Type : Original


1 MD Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of biological sciences, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran branch, Iran


Niosomes or vesicles of nonionic surfactants are very small layered structures obtained from a mixture of nonalionic surfactants of alkyl or diakyl polyglycerol ether and cholesterol and then hydration in aqueous (aqueous) medium. Today, overuse of antibiotics in the treatment of human and animal diseases has caused the multidrug resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. In addition, if a new type of antibiotic is used, resistance genes will begin to appear. After a period of widespread transmission to other bacteria, the spread of resistance and the need for new antibiotics, which requires millions of dollars. Vancomycin is used to treat infections of many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Consumption of this antibiotic is very high due to the bacterial resistance that has been created against it as well as the side effects that it causes in some parts of the body. Many studies have been done on antibiotics to find a solution to eliminate the toxicity caused by their long-term use.


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