Assessment of Selected Physico-Chemical Properties and Metals in Qeera Stream Water, Bakkee-Jamaa, Nekemte, Ethiopia

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Chemistry, Wollega University, P. O. Box 395; Nekemte, Ethiopia


In this paper, Qeera wastewater containing stream, found in Bakkee-Jamaa district of Nekemte town, was assessed for selected metals and physico-chemical properties. The metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Additional water samples collected from Dangi spring water, which is found about 10 km far away from the town, and Chalalaqi waste water containing stream were also assessed for reference. Analysis of concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ca, and Ni metals were carried out using FAAS. For metal analysis good linearity were obtained with coefficient of determination (R2) 0.998 or better. The LOD for the metals were in the range of 0.003 to 0.018 mg L−1 and LOQ, 0.010 to 0.06 mg L−1. Recovery studies ranged from 92 % to 104 % for the metals. The study shows that Ca, Cd and Ni are quantified in all the three water bodies. Overall, the level of the metals studied is higher in the urban area streams than that of Dangi spring in the rural area. The average concentrations (in mg/L) of Ca, Cd and Ni were found to be 9.56., 0.22 and 0.38, respectively. When compared with international guide lines for the quality of irrigation water, Cd and Ni are above permissible levels and show significant pollution of the water. The data obtained from the study of selected physico-chemical properties (EC, TDS, pH, TSS and Cl¯) of the water samples were found to be within the recommended level except TSS.


[1] S. M.Tamiru, J. Environ. Earth. Sci., 5, 21 (2015).

[2] S. S. Ahluwalia, D. Goyal, Bioresource. Technol., 98, 2243 (2007).

[3] K. S. Hui, C. Y. H. Chao, S. C. Kot, J. Hazard. Mater., 127, 89 (2005).

[4] L. Raschid-Sally, P. Jayakody, “Drivers and Characteristics of Wastewater Agriculture in Developing Countries: Results from a Global Assessment, Colombo, Sri Lanka”, International Water Management Institute. 35p. IWMI Research Report 127 (2008).

[5] M. B. Pescod, “Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture – FAO irrigation and drainage paper 47” , Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome,  FAO (1992).

[6] R. H. Kadlec, R. L. Knight,Treatment wetlands. New York, Lewis Publishers (1996).

[7] E. Friedler, D.Butler, Water. Sci. Technol., 33, 65 (1996).

[8] I. Hussain; L. Raschid; M. A. Hanjra; F. Marikar; W. van der Hoek, “Wastewater use in agriculture: Review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts” (With an extended list of bibliographical references), Working Paper 37. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (2002).

[9] N. Shalinee, O. O. Ademola, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health., 11, 249 (2014).

[10] N. M. Khai, P. Q. Ha, I. Oborn, Agric., Ecosyst. Environ., 122 192 (2007).

[11] M. R. Leslie, R. Anu, A. Priyanie, Environ. Res. Let., 12, 7 (2017).

[12] L. Raschid-Sally, D. D. Tuan, A. Sarath, National assessments on wastewater use in agriculture and an emerging typology: the Vietnam case study. In: Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: confronting the livelihood and environmental realities. (Ed. C. A. Scott), CABI publishing, Cambridge, MA, USA, pp. 81- 90 (2004).

[13] V. Lazarova, T. Asano, “Challenges of Sustainable irrigation with recycled water, in V. Lazarova, A. Bahri”, Water reuse for irrigation, Agriculture, Landscapes and Turf Grass, CRC Press, London New York, 1-30 (2005).

[14] L. A. Nguyen, N. D. Minh, N. M. Khai, N. C. Vinh, R. L. Hough, I. Oborn, V. N. U. J. Sci., Nat. Sci. Technol., 26,95 (2010).

[15] M. B. Pescod, Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1992 (2010).

[16] H. Lokeshwari, G. T. Chandrappa, Curr. Sci., 91, 622 (2006).

[17] D. Curtis, A. Klassen, Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: “The Basic Science of Poisons”, 7th Ed, 932-970 (2008).

[18] K. Salawu, M. M. Barau, D. Mohammed, D. A. Mikailu, B. H. Abdullahi, R. I. Uroko, J. Toxicol. Environ.  Health. Sci., 7, 76 (2015).

[19] A. D. Chu, P. M. Con, N. M. Khai, V. N. U. J. Sci., Nat. Sci. Technol. 26, 42 (2010).

[20] O. Dikinya and O. Areola, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 7, 337 (2010).

[21] METHOD 3005a; Acid digestion of waters for total recoverable or dissolved metals for analysis by FAAS or ICP spectroscopy.

[22] G. F. Wold, B. Ayenew, T. Ahmada, Int. J. Chem. Sci., 14, 3207 (2016).

[23] J. Pandey, R. Singh, Appl. Water. Sci., 7, 1669 (2015).

[24] S. T. Abdullahi, I. A. Yakasai, M. Garba, A. Musa, S. I. Yakubu, Niger. J. Pharm. Sci., 12, 1 (2013).

[25] EPA 2012, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Guidelines for Water Reuse.

[26] S. Kamran, A. Shafaqat, H. Samra, A. Sana, F. Samar, B. S. Muhammad, A. B. Saima, M. T. Hafi, J. Environ. Manag. Public. Safe., 2, 172 (2013).

[27] FAO 1985,  Irrigation and Drainage Paper, Water Quality for Agriculture, FAO guidelines for trace metals in irrigation water FAO guidelines for interpretation of water quality for irrigation.